Cooking Guide

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In Measuring, Remember…


3 tsp = 1 tbsp
2 tbsp. = 1/8 cup
4 tbsp. = 1/4 cup
5 tbsp. = 1 tsp. + 1/3 cup
8 tbsp. = 1/2cup
12 tbsp. = 3/4cup
16 tbsp. = 1 cup
5/8 cup = 1/2cup + 2 tbsp.
7/8 cup =3/4cup + 2 tbsp.
4 oz. = 1/2cup
8 oz. = 1 cup
16 oz. = 1 pound
2 cups = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
1 quart = 4 cups
8 oz. = 1 cup
2 cups sugar = 1 lb.
A few grains = less than 1/8 tsp.
Pinch = as much as can be taken between tip of finger & thumb
1 oz. butter = 2 tbsp.
1 lb. butter = 2 cups or 4sticks
1 oz. = 2 tbsp. fat or liquid
2 cups fat = 1 pound
Speck = less than 1/8 tsp.

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Oven Temperatures


Temperature
Fahrenheit Term

250°-300° ……………………………… Slow
325° ………………………………………Moderately slow
350° ……………………………………….Moderate
375° ……………………………………….Moderately quick
400° ……………………………………….Moderately hot
425° - 450° …………………………..Hot
475° - 500° …………………………..Extremely hot


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When You’re Missing An Ingredient…


Substitute 1 teaspoon dried herbs for 1 tablespoon fresh herbs.

Try 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour as a substitute for 1 cup cake flour.

Add 1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 cup buttermilk to equal 1 teaspoon baking powder. The buttermilk will replace 1/2 cup of the liquid indicated in the recipe.

Use 3 tablespoons dry cocoa plus tablespoon butter or margarine instead of 1 square (1 ounce) unsweetened chocolate.

Make custard with 1 whole egg rather than 2 egg yolks.

Mix 1/2 cup evaporated milk with 1/2 cup water (or 1 cup reconstituted non- fat dry milk with 1 tablespoon butter) to replace 1 cup whole milk.

Make 1 cup of sour milk by letting stand for 5 minutes 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus sweet milk to make 1 cup.

Substitute 1 package (2 teaspoons) active dry yeast for 1 cake compressed yeast.

Add 1 tablespoon instant minced onion, re-hydrated, to replace 1 small fresh onion.

Substitute 2 tablespoons of flour for 1 tablespoon of cornstarch to use as a thickening agent.

Mix 1/2 cup tomato sauce with 1/2 cup of water to make 1 cup of tomato juice.

Make catchup or chili with 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar and 2 tablespoons vinegar.


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When You Need Approximate Measurements…



1 lemon makes 3 tablespoons juice
1 lemon makes 1 teaspoon grated peel.
1 orange makes 1/3 cup juice
1 orange makes about 2 teaspoons grated peel
1 chopped onion, medium makes 1/2 cup pieces
1 lb unshelled walnuts makes 1 ½ to 1 Ύ cups shelled
1 lb unshelled almonds makes 3/4 to 1 cup shelled
8 to 10 egg whites make 1 cup
12 to 14 egg yolks make 1 cup
1 lb shredded American cheese makes 4 cups
1/4 lb crumbled blue cheese makes 1 cup
1 cup un-whipped cream makes 2 cups whipped
4 ozs. (1-1 Ό cups) uncooked macaroni makes 2 Ό cups cooked
7 ounces spaghetti makes 4 cups cooked
4 ounces (1 ½ - 2 cups) uncooked noodles makes 2 cups cooked

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Meat Thermometer Temperatures


Beef – Rare ………….........140°
-------Medium ……......…160°
-------Well-done …....….170°
Fresh Pork ……....... 170- 185°
Smoked Pork
---Fully cooked…....…..…130°
---Cook before Eating ...160°
Veal…………..........………...170°
Lamb ………….......…175 – 180°


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